Strona główna Journal of Apicultural Science
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0Vol.50 No.2 2006


Content
  1. Chanpen Chanchao, Prapaipit Srimawong, Siriwat Wongsiri - Expression of alpha-glucosidase gene in hypopharyngeal glands of eastern honeybee worker Apis cerana indica 5
  2. Bożena Denisow - Blooming and pollen production of several representatives of the genus Centaurea L. 13
  3. Tadeusz Pawlikowski, Waldemar Celary - Investigations on species resources of bees (Hymenoptera: Apiformes) in Poland during last century 21
  4. Irina Shumakova, Alexander Komissar - Is the orientation of cells in the natural honey bee comb, chosen by bees, random? 33
  5. Dharam Pal Abrol - Defensive behaviour of Apis cerana F. against predatory wasps 39
  6. Adam Roman - Effect of pollen load size on the weight of pollen harvested from honeybee colonies (Apis mellifera L.) 47
  7. Chanpen Chanchao, Kawiya Sintara, Siriwat Wongsir - Comparison of antibiotic and organoleptic properties of honey from various plant sources in Thailand 59
  8. Teresa Szczęsna - Long-chain fatty acids composition of honeybee-collected pollen 65
  9. Teresa Szczęsna - Protein content and amino acid composition of bee-collected pollen from selected botanical origins 81
  10. Teresa Szczęsna - Protein content and amino acids compositon of bee-collected pollen originating from Poland, South Korea and China 91
  11. Dariusz Teper - Food plants of Bombus terrestris L. as determined by pollen analysis of faeces 101
  12. Edit Zajácz, Árpád Zaják, Enikő Mátray Szalai, Tamás Szalai - Nectar production of some sunflower hybrids 109
  13. Tadeusz Wolski, Krzysztof Tambor, Helena Rybak-Chmielewska, Bogdan Kędzia - Identification of honey volatile components by solid phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) 115
  14. Helena Rybak-Chmielewska, Teresa Szczęsna, Ewa Wa¶ - Attempt to assay maltodextrins occurring in starch syrup and in winter stores made by bees from that syrup 127
  15. Małgorzata Bieńkowska, Beata Panasiuk - influence of the diameter of the inseminating needle tip on the results of bee queens' fertilization 137
  16. Helena Rybak-Chmielewska, Teresa Szczęsna, Małgorzata Bieńkowska - Gas chromatograph (GC) study of sugar composition in honeys and winter stores processed by bees from sucrose syrups 147

EXPRESSION OF ALPHA-GLUCOSIDASE GENE IN HYPOPHARYNGEAL GLANDS OF EASTERN HONEYBEE
WORKER Apis cerana indica
Chanpen Chanchao1, Prapaipit Srimawong2, Siriwat Wongsiri1
1Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.
2Research center, Ramathibodi Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand. E-mail: chanpen@sc.chula.ac.th
Received 29 November 2005; accepted 04 October 2006
Summary
Duties of worker bees in a hive change according to their age. Temporal and spatial expression of developmentally regulated genes relating to this is interesting. In order to control the age of Apis cerana indica, emerged bees were marked with painting color and counted as 0 day. Bees at desired ages were collected during 0-29 days with the time interval of 3 days. The results showed that hypopharyngeal glands (hpg) change their size from large to shrunken and their colour from creamy to pale. The largest acini were found in worker bees 15 to 18 days old and the smallest in 29 days old. Alpha-glucosidase (ag) activity assay in crude extract was low in emerged bees. Then, the activity increased in workers 18 days old and got the highest in those 24 days old. Activity staining of crude extract by native polyacrylamide gel, ag was low from 18-day and high from 29-day old worker bees. In addition, the expression profile of ag was obtained by RT-PCR. It indicates that the expression of ag was high in foragers. The obtained cDNA sequence shows closely relationship (82.81% similarity) to the cDNA in A. mellifera.
Keywords: Apis cerana indica, alpha-glucosidase, development, expression, nurse bee, forager, activity, RT-PCR, cDNA, phylogeny.
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BLOOMING AND POLLEN PRODUCTION OF SEVERAL REPRESENTATIVES OF THE GENUS Centaurea L.
Bożena Denisow
Department of Botany, Laboratory of Horticultural Plants Biology, Agricultural University
Akademicka 15, 20-950 Lublin, Poland. E-mail: bozena.denisow@ar.lublin.pl
Received 04 April 2006; accepted 15 August 2006
Summary
Investigations on the flowering time and pollen efficiency of three Centaurea species were conducted in the years 2002 - 2004. The study included Centaurea cyanus L. - cornflower and C. scabiosa L. - greater knapweed which grew in the districts of Sławin and Czechów of the city of Lublin, and C. stoebe L. (=C. rhenana) which occurred at Pliszczyn near Lublin. The flowering of the Centaurea species in anthropogenic communities lasted, under Poland's conditions, continuously from mid-June to the first decade of September. The development of all disc florets in the capitulum lasted for ca. 2 days (C. cyanus), 4 - 5 days (C. stoebe), 5 - 8 days (C. scabiosa). C. scabiosa and C. stoebe form a similar number of pollen-yielding disc flowers per 1 m2, averaging 95,000. In the case of C. cyanus only 5,800 flowers per 1 m2 were found. The mass of pollen delivered was found to be species-related as dependent on anther size and productivity of the archesporial tissue. Dry matter weight of pollen per 100 stamen heads averaged from 3.93 mg to 6.12 mg. Pollen efficiency of C. scabiosa averages 283.3 kg per 1 ha, varying from year to year from 225 to 390 kg. C. stoebe may yield 173 - 213 kg of pollen per 1 ha, C. cyanus yielding only 14.3 kg per 1 ha. The species were visited in high numbers by Apis mellifera which accounted for 60 - 80% of all pollinators.
Keywords: Centaurea sp., blooming biology, pollen efficiency, pollinators.
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INVESTIGATIONS ON SPECIES RESOURCES OF BEES (Hymenoptera: Apiformes) IN POLAND DURING LAST CENTURY*
Tadeusz Pawlikowski1, Waldemar Celary2
1 Biomonitoring of Terrestrial Environments Laboratory, Institute of Ecology & Environmental Protection, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Gagarina 9, 87-100 Toruń, Poland.
E-mail: pawlik@biol.uni.torun.pl
2 Institute of Systematics and Evolution of Animals, Polish Academy of Sciences,
Sławkowska 17, 31-016 Kraków, Poland. E-mail: celary@isez.pan.krakow.pl
Received 18 April 2006; accepted 11 September 2006
Summary
This article reviews the results of last century investigations on local and regional biodiversity of bees in Poland. In the last century a mere 7.3% of the country's area was investigated. Theese were 239 UTM squares (10 x 10 km). The explored UTM squares can be used for monitoring the local or regional diversity of Apiformes in Poland. The most important studies have been conducted in the basin of Vistula river. It was found that 90% of the total number of bee species were those occurring in the middle and lower Vistula valley. Such species occuring emphasizes their importance as a refuge for native bee resources in the conception of European Network program (EECONET) and the Polish program of natural protection Natura 2000.
Keywords: Hymenoptera, Apiformes, bees, species resources, Poland.
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IS THE ORIENTATION OF CELLS IN THE NATURAL HONEY BEE COMB, CHOSEN BY BEES, RANDOM?
Irina Shumakova1, Alexander Komissar2
1Schmalhausen Institute of Zoology, Kiev, Ukraine, e-mail: plazmist@i.com.ua
2National Agricultural University, Kiev, Ukraine. E-mail: alex-kom@nucs.kiev.ua
Received 27 April 2006; accepted 06 November 2006
Summary
The orientation of cells in the natural honey bee combs attached to the horizontal and sloped surfaces was investigated. 263 samples of newly constructed natural combs were obtained. The orientation of cells was measured with 1° accuracy and every comb was classified as having horizontal, vertical or intermediate type of cell orientation. No statistical difference was found in the occurrence of three orientation modes for combs with bee cells. A small (10 - 20%) advantage of vertical orientation in the combs with drone cells was observed. The distribution of cell orientation modes in the naturally-built combs was independent of cell orientation in the neighbouring combs. Most of the combs attached to sloped bars had an intermediate orientation of cells, but an evaluation of their orientation according to the top bar demonstrated that the majority of combs had a "vertical" orientation with rows of cells parallel to the sloped bar. The regular cell pattern appeared to depend on the starting position on the top bar, not on gravity. The orientation of cells in the combs depends on the orientation of the first cell, built by bees.
Keywords: Apis mellifera, comb construction, cell orientation.
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DEFENSIVE BEHAVIOUR OF Apis cerana F. AGAINST PREDATORY WASPS
Dharam Pal Abrol
Division of Entomology, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology,
Faculty of Agriculture, Udheywalla Jammu 180 002 (J&K), India.
E-mail: dharam_abrol@rediffmail.com Tel. + 91-191-2462451; Fax 91-191-2462982
Received 15 May 2006; accepted 14 November 2006
Summary
Defensive behaviour of Apis cerana F. was studied against predatory wasps Vespa velutina and Vespa magnifica. The honeybee Apis cerana showed a well organized defense and killed more number of predatory wasps by exhibiting well organized balling behaviour as compared to Apis mellifera L. The bee mortality was higher when fewer wasps visited the apiary due to an unorganized defence. However, when the intensity of attack was severe, fewer bees and more wasps were killed due to an organized defense.
Keywords: A. cerana, A. mellifera, foraging, defense, balling temperature, hornet, Vespa velutina.
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EFFECT OF POLLEN LOAD SIZE ON THE WEIGHT
OF POLLEN HARVESTED FROM HONEYBEE COLONIES (Apis mellifera L.)
1
Adam Roman
Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences.
Department of Animal Hygiene and Environment. Chełmońskiego 38C, 51 - 630 Wrocław, Poland.
Tel. (071) 32-05-862 wew. 24. Fax (071) 32-05-866. E-mail: adamr@ozi.ar.wroc.pl
Received 27 July 2006; accepted 08 November 2006
Summary
The objective of this study was to demonstrate whether and to what extent the size of pollen loads formed by foragers affects the weight of pollen collected from honeybee colonies. The study comprised 19 colonies and was conducted from May to the end of August in the years 2004 and 2005. Pollen was collected in the form of pollen loads using a pollen capturing device with a 5 mm mesh plate. By using the electron scanning microscope shape of pollen grains was determined to make the taxonomic identification of plant species and families foraged on by the bees. The average daily harvest of pollen loads from 1 honeybee colony was 17.62 g in 2004 and 19.40 g in 2005. Pollen yield per colony in the fist study year was from 4.50 g/day (colony no. 10) to 68.19 g/day (colony no. 21). In the second study year substantially lower values were recorded: from 4.30 g/day (colony no. 6) do 38.25 g/day (colony no. 9). The weight of single pollen loads recovered from honeybee foragers averaged 6.54 mg/load in 2004 and 6.80 mg/load in 2005. The largest pollen loads recovered weighed 7.44 mg/load in 2004 (colony no. 12) and 8.33 mg/load in 2005 (colony no. 9). The relationship between the weight of single pollen loads recovered from incoming foragers and the pollen yield was demonstrated for single honeybee colonies whereas the repeatability of that trait at a similar level occurred in 1 colony in the first study year and in 6 colonies in the second study year - in both successive years the relationship was not repeated in any colony.
Keywords: Honeybee colony, pollen loads, pollen efficiency, pollen-capturing devices.
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COMPARISON OF ANTIBIOTIC AND ORGANOLEPTIC PROPERTIES OF HONEY FROM VARIOUS PLANT SOURCES IN THAILAND
Chanpen Chanchao, Kawiya Sintara, Siriwat Wongsiri
Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand.
E-mail: chanpen@sc.chula.ac.th
Received 15 August 2006; accepted 10 November 2006
Summary
Honey has been wildly used for apitherapy, especially in traditional medicine. Honey properties are different due to floral sources. Honey from longan flower Dimocarpus longan L. (LH), sunflower Helianthus annuus (SH), wild flower (WH), and April honey (AH) was selected. LH contains the highest amount of proline (26.79 ± 1.14 µg/ml) and this coincides with the smell. AH contains the lowest percentage of inverted sugar (15.81 ± 0.18) and this coincides with the taste. Honey diluted at 25%, 50%, 75% (v/v), and neat was prepared and used to test against the growth of Escherichia coli by an agar well-diffusion bioassay. WH at neat and dilution of 75% (v/v) and AH at neat present the most effective activity. At 25% and 50% (v/v) dilutions, honey from all types indicate the same activity but at 75% (v/v) dilution and neat, they perform significantly different activities. These obtained characters may be responsible for the difference of honey and may form the first criteria for a purchasing decision by a consumer.
Keywords: Honey, antibiotic activity, Escherichia coli, apitherapy, proline.
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LONG-CHAIN FATTY ACIDS COMPOSITION OF HONEYBEE-COLLECTED POLLEN
Teresa Szczęsna
Institute of Pomology and Floriculture, Apiculture Division, Department of Bee Products.
Kazimierska 2, 24-100 Puławy, Poland. E-mail: teresa.szczesna@man.pulawy.pl
04 October 2006; accepted 30 October 2006
Summary
The presented study was aimed at determining the composition of long-chain fatty acids of honeybee-collected pollen obtained from several countries (Poland, South Korea and China). A total of 27 samples of bee pollen were examined in the study. Samples of Polish pollen were subjected to melissopalynological analyses to determine their botanical origin, whereas Korean and Chinese samples were classified as multifloral pollen. The collected experimental material was analyzed for contents of dry matter, lipid fraction and long-chain fatty acids. Investigations of long-chain fatty acids were carried out with the gas chromatography method (GC-FID).
The chromatographic analyses identified the following long-chain fatty acids in the samples of honeybee-collected pollen: myristic (C14:0), palmitic (C16:0), stearic (C18:0), oleic (C18:1), linoleic (C18:2), -linolenic (C18:3), arachidic (C20:0), behenic (C22:0) and lignoceric (C24:0). In most of the examined samples originating from different countries (Poland, Korea and China), the predominating acids were: -linolenic acid (43%), followed by palmitic acid (28%) and linoleic acid (14%). As compared with the multifloral pollen collected in Poland, the Brassicaceae pollen had a higher content of the lipid fraction and -linolenic acid. The content of the lipid fraction and that of the long-chain fatty acids examined in bee pollen exhibited great variability between the samples originating from one country as well as between those originating from different countries which might be linked with the various botanical origin of those samples. Due to a high concentration of essential fatty acids (EFA), pollen collected by bees in the form of pollen loads can be applied as a dietary supplement. Investigations into long-chain fatty acids in this product should be continued with consideration given to its botanical origin as well as to determine the requirements for the ratio of unsaturated fatty acids-to-saturated fatty acids (UFA/SFA ratio) - as a quality index.
Keywords: Honeybee-collected pollen, long-chain fatty acids, botanical origin, Brassicaceae, GC.
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PROTEIN CONTENT AND AMINO ACID COMPOSITION OF BEE-COLLECTED POLLEN FROM SELECTED BOTANICAL ORIGINS
Teresa Szczęsna
Institute of Pomology and Floriculture, Apiculture Division, Department of Bee Products.
Kazimierska 2, 24-100 Puławy, Poland. E-mail: teresa.szczesna@man.pulawy.pl
Received 04 October 2006; accepted 27 November 2006
Summary
The objective of the study was to investigate the protein and amino acid composition of honeybee-collected pollen from selected botanical origins. The following unifloral pollen samples were selected and analysed: Onagraceae, Caryophyllaceae, Artemisia, Agrimonia, Rheum, Cornus, Fragaria, Syringa, Ranunculus, Majorana type, Brassica, Sinapis alba, Sinapis arvensis, Campanula patula, Chelidonium maius, Polygonum bistorta.
The concentration of amino acids and crude protein content was dependent on the floral origin of pollen. Pollen from plants belonging to Brassicaceae family (Brassica, Sinapis arvensis, Sinapis alba) and Chelidonium maius pollen was characterized by high content of crude protein and amino acid concentration. Artemisia and Polygonum bistorta pollens were characterised by a low content of these components. The concentration of essential amino acids expressed as percentages of total amount of amino acids was relatively stable and not dependent on the botanical origin of pollen. Pollen belonging to ruderal plants, especially Sinapis arvensis, Sinapis alba and Chelidonium maius is an important source of protein and amino acids for bees and for human purposes.
Keywords: Honeybee-collected pollen, protein, amino acids, botanical origin.
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PROTEIN CONTENT AND AMINO ACIDS COMPOSITON OF BEE-COLLECTED POLLEN ORIGINATING FROM POLAND, SOUTH KOREA AND CHINA
Teresa Szczęsna
Institute of Pomology and Floriculture, Apiculture Division, Department of Bee Products. Kazimierska 2, 24-100 Puławy, Poland. E-mail: teresa.szczesna@man.pulawy.pl
Received 04 October 2006; accepted 06 December 2006
Summary
The objective of the study was to determine the crude protein content and amino acid composition in bee-collected pollen from selected areas of Poland, South Korea and China. A total of 27 samples of pollen were examined after collection by bees. The dry substance, crude protein and amino acids were investigated in the study material. Amino acids were determined by ion exchange chromatography using of an Automatic Amino Acid Analyser (Pharmacia LKB Alpha Plus) after the protein in the study material had been hydrolysed.
As the study showed, regardless of which part of the world it comes from, be-collected pollen contains high content of such amino acids as: glutamic acid, proline, aspartic acid, leucine and lysine. These amino acids account for about 50% of the total amino acids. Strong fluctuations were observed between the samples in terms of the crude protein content and amino acids composition, which may have been due to their various botanical origin. Compared to the pollen from Korea, the pollen from China contained a higher concentration of crude protein and most of the determined amino acids, except for aspartic acid and arginine, whose concentration did not differ in the three compared countries. Essential amino acids accounted for about 37% of the total amino acids in bee-collected pollen. The pollen from Poland contained higher content (by about 3%) of essential amino acids compared to that from Korea and China. Because it is rich in highly nutritious proteins (CS=80%, EAAI=110%), honeybee-collected pollen is recommended as a dietary supplement.
Keywords: Honeybee-collected pollen, crude protein, amino acids, Poland, South Korea, China.
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FOOD PLANTS OF Bombus terrestris L. AS DETERMINED BY POLLEN ANALYSIS OF FAECES
Dariusz Teper
Institute of Pomology and Floriculture, Apiculture Division,
Kazimierska 2, 24-100 Puławy. Poland. E-mail: dariusz.teper@man.pulawy.pl
Received 09 October 2006; accepted 08 November 2006
Summary
In 2002 - 2004, faeces samples were collected to paper pockets stucked to the wall under the entrance to wooden hives settled by colonies of Bombus terrestris. A total of 105 faeces samples were collected during three years study and microscope preparations were made thereof. In the samples 56 pollen grains types belonging to 28 families were identified. The majority of the identified pollen types came from entomophilous taxons. A certain part of pollen could not be identified because of its extensive destruction during digestion. For each study year, based on pollen analysis data a food supply sequence for Bombus terrestris was worked out.
Keywords: Bombus terrestris, food plants, pollen analysis of faeces, digestion of pollen.
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NECTAR PRODUCTION OF SOME SUNFLOWER HYBRIDS
Edit Zajácz1, Árpád Zaják2, Enikő Mátray Szalai3, Tamás Szalai4
1Szent István University Doctoral School for Environmental Sciences,
2100 Gödöllő, Páter Károly út 1, Hungary.
2Ecotoxicological Laboratory, 7136 Fácánkert, Hungary.
3Institute for Small Animal Research, Dept. of Honeybee Breeding and Biology,
2100 Gödöllő, Isaszegi út 200, Hungary.
4Szent István University, Inst. of Environmental Management,
2100 Gödöllő, Páter Károly út. 1, Hungary.
Summary
This study analysed the results of nectar production, sugar concentration and calculated the sugar value of some sunflower hybrids in Hungary. The influence of the main climatic factors on the nectar production and sugar concentration was also studied. The experiment was carried out at two different sites in Hungary, in the Ecotoxicological Laboratory at Fácánkert and in the Institute for Small Animal Research at Gödöllő (samples were collected from Kerekharaszt, ABM-Gramina Ltd.).
The average nectar production per flower was 0.12-0.21 mg at Fácánkert and 0.08-0.15 mg at Kerekharaszt. The refraction values were 44.8-59.0% and 45.7-61.3%. Honey bees visited the fields all day, even in the hot midday hours. From the beginning of the year, the precipitation was less and the temperature was higher at Kerekharaszt, thus, the nectar production was lower but more concentrated at this site.
In the previous years in Hungary very low sunflower nectar collection of honey bees and honey yield was observed. However, the current results show that it did not directly relate to the introduction of new sunflower hybrids.
Keywords: Sunflower hybrids, nectar, sugar concentration, sugar value.
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IDENTIFICATION OF HONEY VOLATILE COMPONENTS BY SOLID PHASE MICROEXTRACTION (SPME) AND GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS SPECTROMETRY (GC/MS)
Tadeusz Wolski1, Krzysztof Tambor2, Helena Rybak-Chmielewska3, Bogdan Kędzia4
1Department of Pharmacognosy with Medicinal Plant Laboratory, Medical University of Lublin.2Department of Food Analysis and Quality Assessment, Faculty of Human Nutritionand Consumer Sciences, Warsaw Agricultural University.3Apiculture Division of Research Institute of Pomology and Floriculture, Puławy.4Research Institute of Medicinal Plants, Poznań.
Received 24 October 2006; accepted 17 November 2006
Summary
Volatile compounds in honey samples of different botanical origins were investigated. Solid phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) revealed a total of 86 compounds in the headspace of 4 types of honey - multifloral, heather, buckwheat and lime-honeydew. The chemical composition of the headspace was very diverse, owing to the presence of compounds from different chemical classes, for instance: alcohols, fenols, ketones, organic acids, esters and hydrocarbons (aliphatic, aromatic and cyclic). The performed analysis showed that the obtained volatile profiles of the examined honeys differed and it was concluded that analysis of the volatiles could be effective for the characterization of the honey's botanical source.
Keywords: Honey, volatile compounds, solid phase microextraction (SPME), gas chromatography (GC), mass spectrometry (MS).
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ATTEMPT TO ASSAY MALTODEXTRINS OCCURRING IN STARCH SYRUP AND IN WINTER STORES MADE BY BEES FROM THAT SYRUP
Helena Rybak-Chmielewska, Teresa Szczęsna, Ewa Wa¶

Research Institute of Pomology and Floriculture, Apiculture Division, Department of Bee Products,Kazimierska 2, 24-100 Puławy, Poland.
Received 27 October 2006; accepted 15 November 2006
Summary
A method was developed to make quantitative assays of maltodextrins: maltotetraose (Dp4), maltopentaose (Dp5), maltohexaoze (Dp6) and maltoheptaose (Dp7). The maltodextrins occur in starch syrup and in the winter stores processed by bees from that syrup. The method was checked for its suitability to detect honey adulteration with starch syrup additions. The precision and repeatability of the method when used for maltodextrins assays was satisfactory. The detectability threshold for the maltodextrins was 0.05%. Additionally, the tests of carbohydrate composition of crystallized winter store samples processed by bees from starch syrup were aimed at explaining substantial losses of colonies in apiaries fed with that syrup under the conditions of long winter of 2005/2006.
The HPLC device manufactured by Shimadzu with a refractometric detector and a column recommended to assay oligosaccharides Luna 5'µm NH2 100D 250 x 4.60 mm (Phenomenex) was used to assay maltodextrins. The 65 : 35 acetonitrile-water system was used as an eluent, flow rate 3 ml/min, analysis time - 10 min, temperature 40°C. Maltodextrin contents (%) were assayed based on the comparing peak areas obtained in the examined samples with those from the reference solution (external standard method). The method described above is not used to identify oligosaccharides characteristic of honey. It can be used to assess the extent to which honey was adulterated with centrifuged stores hoarded by the bees in the combs following their feeding with syrup or with the syrup itself. Using that method it is possible to detect as small an addition as 10% of starch syrup inverted by bees.
Following the analysis of carbohydrate composition of crystallized winter store samples it was established that high glucose content of the winter stores in apiaries which were fed that syrup was the major cause of substantial bee colony losses sustained under the conditions of the long winter of 2005/2006. The glucose content was as high as 38.0% with a relatively low fructose content (22.1%), what explains the crystallization of glucose in the honeycomb cells. An excessive load of maltodextrins in the bee rectum can also be a hazard for the wintering bees. In the samples an average maltodextrine content was ca. 2%, the method being used to assay only a part of those compounds: associations of 4 to 7 glucose molecules.
Keywords: Honey, starch syrup, maltodextrins, adulteration, method, HPLC, bee wintering.
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INFLUENCE OF THE DIAMETER OF THE INSEMINATING NEEDLE TIP ON THE RESULTS OF BEE QUEENS' FERTILIZATION
Małgorzata Bieńkowska, Beata Panasiuk
Institute of Pomology and Floriculture, Apiculture Division, Kazimierska 2, 24-100 Puławy, Poland.
Received 27 October 2006; accepted 18 November 2006
Summary
The study was carried out in the Laboratory of Bee Breeding of the Institute of Pomology and Floriculture, Apiculture Division in Puławy in July and August of 2005 and 2006. Altogether 246 honeybee queens of Carniolan race, "Marynka" line were instrumentally inseminated when 7 days old with a single dose of 8 µl of semen collected from free flying drones of Caucasian race. The glass inseminating needles with tips of 0.16 and 0.19 mm in diameter were used for insemination. Before insemination the queens were kept at room temperature in two-chamber mailing cages with attendant bees, after which they were placed in queenless colonies in the same cages with 25 attendants. All the queens were killed and dissected 48 hours after insemination and their oviducts were examined for the residue of semen and the number of spermatozoa entering spermatheca was counted. It was stated that a higher number of bee queens inseminated with a smaller needle (72.3%) cleared their oviducts within 48 hrs compared to queens inseminated with a bigger needle (50.4%). The highest number of spermatozoa in spermatheca (average 3.304 mln) was found in the group of queens that emptied both oviducts within 48 hrs, less (average 3.286 mln) in bee queens with semen remaining in one oviduct and a significantly lower number of spermatozoa (2.621 mln) in bee queens with semen remaining in both oviducts. Therefore, effort was made to explain the reasons for the lower rate of queens with semen residue in their oviducts in the group inseminated with the needle of 0.16 mm diameter tip.
Keywords: Honeybee queen, insemination, inseminating needle, filling of spermatheca, residue of semen.
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GAS CHROMATOGRAPH (GC) STUDY OF SUGAR COMPOSITION IN HONEYS AND WINTER STORES PROCESSED BY BEES FROM SUCROSE SYRUPS
Helena Rybak-Chmielewska, Teresa Szczęsna, Małgorzata Bieńkowska
Research Institute of Pomology and Floriculture, Apiculture Division, Kazimierska 2, 24-100 Puławy, Poland.
Received 03 November 2006; accepted 27 November 2006
Summary
The objective of the study was to compare sugar composition of honey with that of several syrups (bee feeds) before and after they were processed by bees and deposited in honeycombs as winter stores. Another objective was to find an answer to the question of to what extent gas chromatography (GC) as a method to assay individual carbohydrate contents is able to identify "sugar honey" and other honey surrogates made by enzymatically hydrolyzing sucrose to monosaccharides. The study material consisted of ready-to-use inverts from two manufacturers (syrup A and B) and of 70% sucrose solution (sugar syrup) which is conventionally fed to bees in the autumn as a winter feed. The contents of individual sugars in winter stores processed from those feeds were compared to those in spring honey samples collected from the same colonies.
The use of capillary gas chromatography to assay carbohydrate contents of honey and of inverts (following their processing by bees) allowed some important differences to be found among the products under comparison. The differences were those for erlose and sucrose contents and for maltose to isomaltose content ratio (M/IM). It was also observed that the ratio of sucrose to maltose content can also be a distinguisher to be used in the identification of inverts processed by bees from sucrose syrups. In all winter store samples the ratio was close to 1 or higher. Instead, in the examined honeys the ratio did not exceed 1 and averaged 0.46. The observation needs to be confirmed using broader experiment material, especially using a higher number of winter store samples from sucrose syrups examined for carbohydrate composition. The current standards still stipulate for 5% as the admissible sucrose content of nectar honeys. The product processed by bees from sugar (from sugar beet sucrose) will not be disqualified by a requirement laid down in this manner. What is characteristic of and what distinguishes those inverts is an erlose content of several percentage points.
Keywords: Honey, sucrose syrup, carbohydrates, capillary gas chromatography, adulteration, identification.
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