Strona główna Journal of Apicultural Science
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0Vol.49 No.2 2005


Content
  1. Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska, Mirosława Chwil - Morphological features of the nectary and of the pollen grains and the foraging value of the flowers of yellow azalea (Rhododendron luteum Sweet) 5
  2. Richard A. Baker, Adrian Hick, Wit Chmielewski - Aspects of the history and biogeography of the bee mites Tropilaelaps clareae and T. koenigerum 13
  3. Karol Giejdasz, Zdzisław Wilkaniec, Katarzyna Piech - Effects of seed onion pollination by red mason bee females Osmia rufa L. (Apoidea; Megachilidae) with different body weights 21
  4. Zbigniew Kołtowski - The effect of pollinating insects on the yield of winter rapeseed (Brassica napus L. var. napus f. biennis) cultivars 29
  5. Dariusz Teper - Comparison of food plants of Bombus terrestris L. and Bombus lapidarius L. based on pollen analysis of their pollen loads 43
  6. Bożena Denisow - Nectar secretion of Sisymbrium loeselii L. in some ruderal phytocenoses in the city of Lublin area 51
  7. Wit Chmielewski - Results of investigations on infestation and contamination of propolis with arthropods 59
  8. Beata Madras-Majewska, Zygmunt Jasiński - The content of mercury in bee bread originating from different region of Poland 69
  9. Grażyna Topolska, Aleksandra Hartwig - Diagnosis of Nosema apis infection by investigations of two kinds of samples: dead bees and live bees 75
  10. Eva Forsgren, Ingemar Fries - Acidic-benzoic feed and nosema disease 81


MORPHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF THE NECTARY AND OF THE POLLEN GRAINS AND THE FORAGING VALUE OF THE FLOWERS OF YELLOW AZALEA (Rhododendron luteum Sweet)
Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska, Mirosława Chwil
Department of Botany, Agricultural University of Lublin, 20-950 Lublin, ul. Akademicka15.
Received 5 August 2005; accepted 14 October 2005
Summary
The study was concerned with the amounts of pollen supplied by the pollen, nectary structures and pollen grain properties of Rhododendron luteum Sweet. The weight of nectar produced during the flower's lifetime and the weight of pollen released by the flowers was determined. The size of pollen tetrads and of individual pollen grains was measured and pollen viability was determined. The micromorphology and the anatomy of nectaries was examined using scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy. The plants of Rh. luteum produced on average 32.7 mg of sugars and 9.5 mg of pollen per 10 flowers. The pollen grains of Rh. luteum were rated as medium-sized of flat spherical shape. The grains occur in tetrads that have little degree of globularity forming a tetrahedral system. Viable pollen grains accounted for 74% of the anther's content. Tetrads with four viable grains were the most frequently occurring (40%) whereas those with all sterile grains accounted for 4%. In pollen tetrads three categories of pollen grains were observed: viable grains containing mostly protein substances, viable grains filled abundantly with starch and unviable grains without protoplasts. The nectary gland is situated at the base of the ovary and forms its external layer. In the epidermis of the nectary stomata occur which have the capability to adjust the size of the opening. The secretion cells have a smaller size than the adjacent parenchyma cells. In the ovary walls numerous conductive bundles occur the ramifications of which penetrate into the glandular layers of the nectary.
Keywords: Rhododendron luteum, nectar secretion, pollen, nectary, structure.
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ASPECTS OF THE HISTORY AND BIOGEOGRAPHY OF THE BEE MITES Tropilaelaps clareae AND T. koenigerum
Richard A. Baker1, Adrian Hick1, Wit Chmielewski2
1 School of Biology, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, United Kingdom
2 Apiculture Division, Research Institute of Pomology and Floriculture, Kazimierska 2, 24-100 Pulawy, Poland
Received 5 September 2005; accepted 15 November 2005
Summary
The paper deals with aspects of the two known brood parasites of honey bees from Asia, namely the tropical bee mites Tropilaelaps clareae Delfinado et Baker and Tropilaelaps koenigerum Delfinado-Baker et Baker.
These species of Tropilaelaps belong to the family Laelapidae (Mesostigmata). They feed on bee larvae and pupae causing brood malformation and the death of bees. T. clareae occurs on 5 species of bee - Apis cerana, A. dorsata, A. florea, A. laboriosa and A. mellifera.
T. clareae is known to have a wide disribution in Asia extending eastwards from Iran to Papua New Guinea. T. koenigerum on the other hand and as far as is known at present, has a more restricted distribution. Because of the great interest in Varroa and to a lesser extent Acarapis woodi Rennie, the importance of Tropilaelaps mites has not been sufficiently recognised. There is some concern that Tropilaelaps may become established on A. mellifera in temperate climates. Tropilaelaps mites therefore are an important potential threat to beekeeping in parts of the world other than South-East Asia.
Keywords: Asia, distribution, honeybees, parasites, Tropilaelaps.
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EFFECTS OF SEED ONION POLLINATION BY RED MASON BEE FEMALES Osmia rufa L. (Apoidea; Megachilidae) WITH DIFFERENT BODY WEIGHTS
Karol Giejdasz, Zdzisław Wilkaniec, Katarzyna Piech
Department of Useful Insect Breeding, Faculty of Animal Science A. Cieszkowski Agricultural University of Poznań.
Received 7 September 2005; accepted 14 November 2005
Summary
The study was aimed at determining the impact of body weight of red mason bee Osmia rufa L. females on the pollination efficiency of seed onion Allium cepa L. and the quality of seed yield. The results obtained demonstrated that the body weight of Osmia rufa females used for onion pollination had no significant effect on the pollination efficiency nor the quantity or quality of seeds. It can be observed that the percentage of fruits set compared to the number of flowers in an inflorescence tended to decrease with smaller body weights of the bee females from particular experimental groups. In addition, the other experimental results (total seed yield, germination energy and capacity) confirmed that weaker parameters of pollination efficiency and seed quality were achieved in the case of onion pollination by females with the lowest body weight.
Keywords: Osmia rufa, body weight, pollination, onion
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THE EFFECT OF POLLINATING INSECTS ON THE YIELD OF WINTER RAPESEED (Brassica napus L. var. napus f. biennis) CULTIVARS
Zbigniew Kołtowski
Research Institute of Pomology and Floriculture, Apiculture Division, ul. Kazimierska 2, 24-100 Puławy, Poland; e-mail: zbigniew.koltowski@man.pulawy.pl
Received 8 September 2005; accepted 28 October 2005
Summary
In the years 1999-2001, at the Apiculture Division of the Research Institute of Pomology and Floriculture in Puławy, experiments were carried out to investigate the response of 7 cultivars of winter rapeseed (Kana, Lirajet, Liropa, Marita, Polo, Silvia and Skrzeszowicki) to a lack of pollinating insects. Analyses were conducted on plant samples from plots freely available to the pollinating insects and from plots kept in the blooming period under a gauze cover made of plastic mesh with a mesh size of 2 x 2 mm.
The cultivars examined did not demonstrate any specific reactions to the lack of pollination by insects and their responses were found to be similar. Under very similar conditions of growth and development of plants in both experimental variants, (with a similar number of plants per area size unit, with similar heights and comparable numbers of branches and abundance of blooming) it was found that the plants freely visited by the pollinating insects, compared to those kept under gauze cover, were setting a similar number of fruits from 100 flowers and a higher number of seeds per pod (by 22% on average), which at a similar, yet slightly lower weight of 1000 seeds, resulted in an average yield increase of 10%.
Keywords: winter rapeseed, blooming, pollination, yielding.
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COMPARISON OF FOOD PLANTS OF Bombus terrestris L. AND Bombus lapidarius L. BASED ON POLLEN ANALYSIS OF THEIR POLLEN LOADS
Dariusz Teper
Apiculture Division, Research Institute of Pomology and Floriculture, ul. Kazimierska 2, 24-100 Puławy, e-mail: dariusz.teper@man.pulawy.pl
Received 26 September 2005; accepted 28 October 2005
Summary
The objective of the study was to verify if the differences in foraging preferences between Bombus terrestris and B. lapidarius reported in the literature are related to the differences in the choice of nesting sites or to food predilections of either species. Therefore, in 2001 and in 2005 colonies of B. terrestris and B. lapidarius from artificial rearing conducted at the Apiculture Division of Research Institute of Pomology and Floriculture in Puławy, were set up side by side at Skoki near the town of Dęblin. On several dates nest-bound workers of both species were intercepted for collection of pollen loads, microscopic preparations were made thereof and palynological analysis was performed. The analysis of 131 preparations showed differences in the specific composition of pollen loads formed by either species even though the nests were in the same location.
Keywords: Bombus terrestris, Bombus lapidarius, food plants, pollen loads, pollen analysis.
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NECTAR SECRETION OF Sisymbrium loeselii L. IN SOME RUDERAL PHYTOCENOSES IN THE CITY OF LUBLIN AREA
Bożena Denisow
Department of Botany, Laboratory of the Horticultural Plants Biology, Agricultural University,
20-950 Lublin, Akademicka 15 str., e-mail: bozena.denisow@ar.lublin.pl
Received 2 October 2005; accepted 28 October 2005
Summary
The observations were conducted in the years 2002 - 2005. Nectar secretion by Loesel's mustard was compared in the following antropogenic associations in the Lublin area: A - Sisymbrietum loeselii, B - Sisymbrietum loeselii with Onopordon acanthium and C - Sisymbrietum loeselii with Papaver rhoeas. The blooming abundance of Sisymbrium loeselii varied substantially among associations and was from 5,000 to 18,000 flowers per 1 m2. The succession processes occurring in the phytocoenoses under investigation caused a systematic decrease in the blooming abundance of a taxon over the successive years of the study. The mass of sugars secreted by the flowers was significantly dependent on the position of the flower in the raceme, weather conditions and habitat. On average one Sisymbrium loeselii flower can supply 0.5 mg of sugars. Sugar yield in the years of high blooming abundance may reach as much as 200 kg per 1 ha. In the associations involving Onopordon acanthium and in those involving Papaver rhoeas due to a lower density of individuals, Sisymbrium loeselii may yield, on average, 97 kg per ha and 23 kg per ha of sugars, respectively. The density of bee-like insects foraging on Sisymbrium loeselii flowers in the phytocenoses varied averaging from 2 per 1 m2 in the association with Papaver rhoeas, 8 in that with Onopordon acanthium to 20 per 1 m2 in the Sisymbrietum loeselii association.
Keywords: nectar production, sugars potential, Sisymbrium loeselii, ruderal vegetation.
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RESULTS OF INVESTIGATIONS ON INFESTATION AND CONTAMINATION OF PROPOLIS WITH ARTHROPODS
Wit Chmielewski
Department of Bee Products, Apiculture Division, Research Institute of Pomology & Floriculture, Kazimierska 2, 24-100 Puławy, Poland; e-mail: wit.chmielewski@man.pulawy.pl
Received 10 October 2005; accepted 18 November 2005
Summary
Material was collected during over 3-year studies (2003 -2005) from beehives in stationary private apiary. Propolis was scraped from various propolized hive elements, i.e. bars, frames, walls and floorboards of beehives using scraper and chisel; some samples were collected by means of special constructed propolis traps (double queen excluders installed in beehives) but a certain number of pieces was picked up also from hive debris removed from overwintered bee colonies during spring survey of beehives. Analyses of 215 samples of collected material show that 39 (18.1%) of them were free of arthropods. 81.9% were infested and contaminated with them as follows; 21.4% were contaminated in the Ist, 23.3% in the IInd and 37.2% in the IIIrd degrees, i.e. they contained 1-2, 3-5 and over 5 pest specimens per sample (100g of propolis), respectively.
Propolis samples scraped from bars, frames and other beehive elements were contaminated in 34.1%; product collected by means of traps was comparatively clean, as only 2.9% of samples were contaminated; the strongest contamination (53.3% of samples) was stated among pieces of propolis picked up from hive debris. The commonest contaminants of propolis were insects (including dead bees and their body fragments) and mites usually accompanying bees in beehives.
Very significant components of propolis contaminations were the following insect species: wax moths - Achroia grisella (Fabr.), Galleria mellonella (L.); tenebrionid beetles - Tribolium madens Charp., Tenebrio molitor L.; dermestids - Dermestes lardarius L., Dermestes maculatus De Geer, Anthrenus spp.; psocids - Lachesilla pedicularia L., Lepinotus inquilinus Heyden, Liposcelis divinatorius Muller. The most frequent and numerous mite pests were as follows: Acarus farris (Oud.), A. immobilis Griffiths, A. siro L., Tyrolichus casei Oud., Tyrophagus longior (Gerv.), T. putrescentiae (Schr.), Carpoglyphus lactis (L.), Glycyphagus domesticus (De Geer). Sometimes they were accompanied with predators, Cheyletus eruditus (Schr.) and Melichares tarsalis (Berl.). Some samples were contaminated with parasitic bee mite, Varroa destructor Anderson et Trueman (dead female specimens only) and representants of other groups, e.g. mites associated with soil or plants (Oribatida, Tetranychoidea). Wingless insects and other arthropods (Aranea, Collembola, Crustacea, Isopoda) were rare observed.
Keywords: arthropods, contaminantion, insects, mites, pests, propolis.
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THE CONTENT OF MERCURY IN BEE BREAD ORIGINATING FROM DIFFERENT REGION OF POLAND
Beata Madras-Majewska, Zygmunt Jasiński
Agricultural University of Warsaw, Bee Division, ul. Nowoursynowska 166, 02-787 Warsaw.
Received 10 October 2005; accepted 18 November 2005
Summary
The investigations were performed at Bee Division, Agricultural University of Warsaw in 1998. The aim of the study was to determine the mercury content of bee bread originating from different regions of Poland. The samples of bee bread were collected from 252 honeybee colonies in 84 apiaries. Mercury contents of the samples were assayed using the AMA - 254 automatic mercury analyser for trace mercury.
The mercury content of samples varied with sampling site. The highest mercury content was found in province Zachodniopomorskie and the lowest in Wielkopolskie. The nationwide average was 0.00092 mg/kg. The mercury content of bee bread across provinces and across samples in Poland did not exceed the norms.
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DIAGNOSIS OF Nosema apis INFECTION BY INVESTIGATIONS OF TWO KINDS OF SAMPLES: DEAD BEES AND LIVE BEES
Grażyna Topolska, Aleksandra Hartwig
Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Warsaw Agricultural University, 02-787 Warsaw, Ciszewskiego 8. E-mail: topolska@alpha.sggw.waw.pl
Received 11 October 2005; accepted 21 November 2005
Summary
All the techniques of diagnosis of Nosema apis infection, recommended in the OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health) Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals 2004, are based on the investigation of samples of live bees collected at the entrance of the hive. However, sometimes, it is impossible to get such samples - for instance when the colony has died. On the other hand, it would often be useful for beekeepers to know the health status of the colonies in early spring. At this time obtaining samples of live bees at the hive entrance is very difficult in many areas. In this work the method of investigation of the dead bees collected from the bottom board of the hive just before the time of the first spring flight, or from the dead colony, is described. In many countries with a climate similar to or cooler than in Poland such samples are easy to get. The method consists of the grinding of 100 whole bees in 50 ml of water, passing the suspension through a filter made of about 25 GSM (g/m2) Nonwoven PP (polypropylene) cloth, and microscopic examination of the filtrate, under bright-field. The comparison of the method in relation to the simple nonquantitative method of investigation of live bees, from the OIE Terrestrial Manual, was performed.
Keywords: Nosema apis infection, diagnosis, method.
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ACIDIC-BENZOIC FEED AND NOSEMA DISEASE
Eva Forsgren*, Ingemar Fries
Department of Entomology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 7044, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.
*Correspondence: E-mail: eva.forsgren@entom.slu.se Tel.: ++47(0)18 67 20 83; Fax: ++47(0)18 67 28 90
Received 14 November 2005; accepted 5 December 2005
Summary
It is not unusual that beekeepers add acetic or benzoic acid to the winter feed. It is effective for preventing formation of mould in feeders and may also have other effects. The chemical composition of the food may have an impact on the spore germination of the intracellular parasite Nosema apis, but there are contradictory results on the impact from acidified food on nosema infections. We have studied the effect from acidic and benzoic feed on nosema development in field studies and laboratory experiments. Bee colonies in the field were given winter feed with different concentrations of acetic acid (n=82) or benzoic acid (n= 41). Samples of adult bees from each colony were investigated for nosema disease in the fall at the time of feeding and in the following spring. Bees (n=225, acetic acid, n=120, benzoic acid) in the laboratory were individually fed the same solutions as in the field studies, but with addition of 10.000 N. apis spores per bee. Control bees (n=75/60) received sugar solution or acidified sugar solution only. Samples were taken 4, 8 and 12 or 14 days post infection and the amount of spores in the midgut was counted in a haemocytometer. In a second experiment, also with addition of 10.000 N. apis spores per bee but using only the highest concentration of acetic acid compared to non-acidified sugar solution, the rate of infected bees was investigated (n=210). No effect from altering the pH by addition of acetic acid, or from benzoic acid could be found, neither on the quantitative disease development of the parasite, nor on the infection rate of individual bees. The results from the field experiments support the laboratory results: addition of acetic or benzoic acid to the feed of honey bees has no influence on nosema prevalence or development.
Keywords: acetic acid, benzoic acid, winter feed, Nosema apis.
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